The Apology of the Augsburg Confession

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The outline for the Apology, or “defense,” of the Augsburg Confession has two sets of numbers. Neither set is fully in order because of the way Melanchthon responded to the issues presented by the Pontifical Confutation (see introduction above).
The numbers on the left generally correspond with the articles of the Augsburg Confession. However, note that there is no Article VI, XXV, or XXVI in the Apology, since similar articles were treated together. (The article on “New Obedience” was treated with the article on “Justification”; the article on “Confession” was treated with the article on “Repentance”; and the article on “The Distinction of Meats” was treated with the article on the “The Mass.”)
The numbers on the right, in parentheses, show which articles were disputed by the Pontifical Confutation. The section on “Confession and Satisfaction” is marked in some editions as Article VI.


I. God

II. Original Sin (I)

III. Christ

IV. Justification (II)

What Is Justifying Faith

Faith in Christ Justifies

We Obtain Forgiveness of Sins by Faith Alone in Christ

Scripture Affirms This Teaching

The Church Fathers Affirm This Teaching

The Adversaries Reject This Teaching

V. Love and Fulfilling the Law (III)

No One Can Keep the Law Perfectly

Church Fathers and St. Paul Affirm Justification through Faith

Reply to the Adversaries’ Arguments

Passages the Adversaries Misuse

The Adversaries’ Teaching Based on Reason and the Law

Results of the Adversaries’ Teaching

Salvation Is by God’s Mercy

The Adversaries’ Other Arguments


VII./VIII. The Church (IV)

IX. Baptism

X. The Holy Supper

XI. Confession

XIIa. Repentance (V)

Two Parts of Repentance

Scriptural Proofs

Forgiveness of Sins Received by Faith

Faith and Repentance

XIIb. Confession and Satisfaction (VI)

Misuses of Scripture

Additional False Teachings

True Repentance Produces Good Works

XIII. The Number and Use of the Sacraments (VII)

XIV. Ecclesiastical Order

XV. Human Traditions in the Church (VIII)

XVI. Political Order

XVII. Christ’s Return for Judgment

XVIII. Free Will

XIX. The Cause of Sin

XX. Good Works

XXI. The Invocation of Saints

XXII. Both Kinds in the Lord’s Supper (X)

XXIII. The Marriage of Priests (XI)

Arguments for the Marriage of Priests


XXIV. The Mass (XII)

What Is a Sacrifice, The Kinds of Sacrifice

What the Fathers Thought about Sacrifice

The Use of the Sacrament, The Sacrifice

The Term Mass

The Mass for the Dead

XXVII. Monastic Vows (XIII)

XXVIII. Church Authority (XIV)

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